Giglio Island has had a very adventurous and interesting history that has its origins in Neolithic times, as shown by the numerous archaeological finds discovered here.

The island has always been a strategic point for the populations of the time, including the Etruscans and the Romans, due to its particular geographical position in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Once Roman rule had collapsed, it is said that in 805 the Isle of Giglio was donated by Charlemagne to the Abbey of the Three Fountains and that in 1264, after a period in which some noble families followed the government of central Italy, Giglio Island passed into the hands of the Republic of Pisa.

It is during this period that Giglio Castello was developed more, both from the urban and the defensive point.

The Pisans exercised their rule until the early 15th century, when the island was sold to the Medici family. Thus began a very difficult time for the islanders, who saw numerous attacks by pirates from North Africa. The most sad episode we know about came in 1544 when the pirate Cair Heddin (known as the Barbarossa), deported nearly a thousand Gigliese as slaves in Turkey.

The Saracen attacks continued until 1799, when the Gigliesi fought heroically against the Turks, bringing an important victory, marking the end of the Pirates' raids forever.

More serene years followed for Giglio, which saw a flourishing of agriculture, the economy and the mining industry. The latter was more important than ever during the Second World War, guaranteeing jobs for almost 400 miners in Giglio Campese alone, where there was a pyrite mine which was finally closed in 1962.

From that moment on, the island has seen a growing tourism industry, creating new accommodation facilities for visitors, without losing its authentic and genuine character.